Stacks 2.0 is a layer-1 blockchain that connects to Bitcoin and brings smart contracts and decentralized apps to it. Smart contracts and apps developed on the Stacks platform are natively integrated with the security, stability, and economic power of Bitcoin.
Read more about the functionality provided by the Stacks 2.0 blockchain.
Check out the technical specifications for a brief overview
Stacks 2.0 implements a new mining mechanism called Proof of Transfer ("PoX"). PoX is a consensus algorithm between two blockchains. It uses an established blockchain (in this case Bitcoin) to secure a new blockchain (Stacks).
PoX connects to Bitcoin with a 1:1 block ratio, meaning anything that happens on the Stacks blockchain can be verified on the Bitcoin Blockchain.
Instead of burning electricity on proof of work, PoX reuses already minted bitcoins as “proof of computation” and miners represent their cost of mining in bitcoins directly.
Mining is required to make the network usable, trustworthy, and secure. Miners verify incoming transactions, participate in the consensus mechanism, and write new blocks to the blockchain.
To incentivize mining, miners receive freshly minted Stacks (STX) tokens if they win the bid for becoming the leader of the next round.
Bitcoins used for miner bids are sent to a set of specific addresses corresponding to Stacks (STX) tokens holders that are actively participating in consensus ("Stackers"). Thus, rather than being destroyed, the bitcoins consumed in the mining process go to productive Stacks holders as a reward based on their holdings of Stacks and participation in the Stacking algorithm.
Stackers have to lock up their Stacks (STX) tokens for a certain period of time.
Clarity is a new language for smart contracts on the Stacks 2.0 blockchain. The Clarity smart contract language optimizes for predictability and security.
Stacks 2.0 anchors clarity smart contracts to Bitcoin making it possible for smart contracts to operate based on actions seen on the bitcoin blockchain.
Clarity is distinct from other languages designed for writing smart contracts in a few ways:
- Predictability: The Clarity language uses precise and unambiguous syntax that allows developers to predict exactly how their contracts will be executed.
- Security: The Clarity language allows users to supply their own conditions for transactions that ensure that a contract may never unexpectedly transfer a token owned by a user.
- No compiler: Contracts written in Clarity are broadcasted on the blockchain exactly as they are written by developers. This ensures that the code developers wrote, analyzed, and tested, is exactly what gets executed.
Stacks 2.0 enabled building decentralized apps that are user-owned and avoid centralized servers.
Read one of our guides to understand the ins and outs of the Stacks 2.0 blockchain.
Ready to get started with Stacks? Try one of our existing tutorials:
Developing on the Stacks blockchain is much simpler with the our tooling.
- Network health checker: Check the status of the network with the status checker
- Explorer: View accounts, blocks, transactions, and smart contracts broadcasted to the Stacks blockchain using the Stacks Explorer
- API: Read and interact with the blockchain and with smart contract using the Stacks 2.0 Blockchain API
- CLI: Use the Stacks CLI inside your terminal