Understand the Architecture

The BNS node is the heart of the system. It is responsible for building up and replicating global name state.

There are three parts to BNS that developers should be aware of. They are:

  • The BNS indexer. This module crawls the blockchain and builds up its name database. BNS indexers do not contain any private or sensitive state, and can be deployed publicly. We maintain a fleet of them at https://node.blockstack.org:6263 for developers to use to get started.

  • The BNS API. This module gives developers a stable RESTful API for interacting with the BNS network. We provide one for developers to experiment with at https://core.blockstack.org.

  • BNS clients. These communicate with the BNS API module in order to resolve names. Internally, they generate and send transactions to register and modify names.

The BNS indexer and BNS API comprise the BNS node. An architectural schematic appears below.

            RESTful   | +----------------+             +--------------------+ |
+--------+   API      | |                | private API |                    | |
| client |<------------>| BNS API module |<----------->| BNS indexer module | |
+--------+            | |                |             |                    | |
    |                 | +----------------+             | +----------------+ | |
    |                 |                                | | name database  | | |
    |                 |                                | +----------------+ | |
    |                 |                                +--------------------+ |
    |                 | BNS node                                 ^            |
    |                 +------------------------------------------|------------+
    |                                                            |
    |                                                            v
    |       blockchain transactions                    +--------------------+
    +------------------------------------------------->|   blockchain peer  |

The above diagram depicts the BNS architecture. Clients talk to the BNS API module to resolve names, and generate and send blockchain transactions to register and modify names. The API module talks to the indexer module and gives clients a stable, Web-accessible interface for resolving names. The indexer module reads the blockchain via a blockchain peer, over the blockchain’s peer network.

Stacks Blockchain currently implements the API module and indexer module as separate daemons (blockstack api and blockstack-core, respectively). However, this is an implementation detail, and may change in the future.

The BNS indexer implements the blockchain consensus rules and network protocols. Its main responsibility is to build up and replicate all of the name state. It does not have any public APIs of its own.

The BNS API modules allows users and developers to resolve names via a RESTful interface. Resolution can be done with vanilla curl or wget. BNS applications should use the BNS API module for name resolution. They should not attempt to talk to a BNS indexer directly, because its API is not stable and is not meant for consumption by any other process except for the API module.

Registering and managing names require generating and sending blockchain transactions, which requires running a BNS client. We provide two reference BNS clients:

  • The Blockstack Browser gives users and developers a graphical UI to resolve, register and manage names. This is the recommended way to interact with BNS.
  • The Blockstack CLI gives developers low-level control over resolving, registering, and managing names. A new CLI that uses blockstack.js is under development, and will replace the existing CLI program.

We recommend that new developers use the Blockstack Browser.

Developers who want to make their own client programs that do not use the reference client library code should read the BNS transaction wire format document for generating and sending their own transactions.

The examples in this document focus on resolving names using curl. We refer the reader to client-specific documentation for registering and managing names.